使用rman from service 搭建dataguard

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标题:使用rman from service 搭建dataguard

作者:惜分飞©版权所有[未经本人同意,不得以任何形式转载,否则有进一步追究法律责任的权利.]

从oracle 12c开始提供了rman通过from service方式搭建dg,使用12c长期支持版19c(并打上最新的patch)
配置dataguard相关参数

alter system set db_unique_name='XIFENFEI' scope=spfile;
alter system set service_names='XIFENFEI';
alter system set log_archive_config='dg_config=(XIFENFEI,XIFENFEIDG)';
alter system set log_archive_dest_1='LOCATION=USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST valid_for=(all_logfiles,all_roles) db_unique_name=XIFENFEI';
alter system set log_archive_dest_2='service=XIFENFEIDG lgwr async valid_for=(online_logfiles,primary_role) db_unique_name=XIFENFEIDG';
alter system set standby_file_management=auto;
alter system set db_file_name_convert='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/','/u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/' scope=spfile;
alter system set log_file_name_convert='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/','/u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/' scope=spfile;
alter system set fal_server=XIFENFEIDG;

配置tnsnames.ora

XIFENFEI =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.0.238)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = XIFENFEI)
    )
  )

XIFENFEIDG =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.0.124)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVICE_NAME = XIFENFEI)
    )
  )

拷贝主库密码文件到备库

[oracle@primary ~]$ scp $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwXIFENFEI 192.168.0.124:$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/
The authenticity of host '192.168.0.124 (192.168.0.124)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:NI2952z4Bqc3M/B+AK7EJRiJNauROIyluvu1l4NSTX0.
ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:1d:64:dd:ef:1c:ad:ed:cf:70:22:2d:4d:7c:90:5e:5e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.0.124' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
oracle@192.168.0.124's password: 
orapwXIFENFEI                                                                   100% 2048     6.6MB/s   00:00    
[oracle@primary ~]$ 

备库启动到nomount状态

[oracle@standby ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 19.0.0.0.0 - Production on Sat Mar 13 20:32:34 2021
Version 19.10.0.0.0

Copyright (c) 1982, 2020, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> create spfile from pfile='/tmp/pfile';

File created.

SQL> startup nomount pfile='/tmp/pfile'
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 4294963264 bytes
Fixed Size                  8904768 bytes
Variable Size             805306368 bytes
Database Buffers         3472883712 bytes
Redo Buffers                7868416 bytes
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 19c Enterprise Edition Release 19.0.0.0.0 - Production
Version 19.10.0.0.0

rman from service方式创建standby ctl和还原数据文件

[oracle@standby ~]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 19.0.0.0.0 - Production on Sat Mar 13 20:34:37 2021
Version 19.10.0.0.0

Copyright (c) 1982, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: XIFENFEI (not mounted)

RMAN> restore standby controlfile from service XIFENFEI;

Starting restore at 13-MAR-21
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=9 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: using network backup set from service XIFENFEI
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/control01.ctl
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/XIFENFEI/control02.ctl
Finished restore at 13-MAR-21

RMAN> alter database mount;

released channel: ORA_DISK_1
Statement processed

RMAN> restore database from service XIFENFEI;

Starting restore at 13-MAR-21
Starting implicit crosscheck backup at 13-MAR-21
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=12 device type=DISK
Finished implicit crosscheck backup at 13-MAR-21

Starting implicit crosscheck copy at 13-MAR-21
using channel ORA_DISK_1
Finished implicit crosscheck copy at 13-MAR-21

searching for all files in the recovery area
cataloging files...
no files cataloged

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: using network backup set from service XIFENFEI
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00001 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: using network backup set from service XIFENFEI
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/sysaux01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: using network backup set from service XIFENFEI
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00004 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/undotbs01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: using network backup set from service XIFENFEI
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00007 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished restore at 13-MAR-21
[/sehll]
备库启动mrp进程
1
1
2021-03-13T20:54:08.075418+08:00
Attempt to start background Managed Standby Recovery process (XIFENFEI)
Starting background process MRP0
2021-03-13T20:54:08.086269+08:00
MRP0 started with pid=56, OS id=8182 
2021-03-13T20:54:08.087276+08:00
Background Managed Standby Recovery process started (XIFENFEI)
2021-03-13T20:54:13.104757+08:00
 Started logmerger process
2021-03-13T20:54:13.112058+08:00

IM on ADG: Start of Empty Journal 

IM on ADG: End of Empty Journal 
PR00 (PID:8188): Managed Standby Recovery starting Real Time Apply
2021-03-13T20:54:13.205668+08:00
Parallel Media Recovery started with 4 slaves
2021-03-13T20:54:13.216576+08:00
Stopping change tracking
PR00 (PID:8188): Media Recovery Waiting for T-1.S-25 (in transit)
2021-03-13T20:54:13.269138+08:00
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 12 Seq 25 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/s_redo12.log

至此dataguard基本上搭建完成

rman备份到win共享目录

联系:手机/微信(+86 13429648788) QQ(107644445)QQ咨询惜分飞

标题:rman备份到win共享目录

作者:惜分飞©版权所有[未经本人同意,不得以任何形式转载,否则有进一步追究法律责任的权利.]

在win环境中数据库备份到异地,相对来说没有linux的nfs方便(可能nfs使用多了比较熟悉),以前写过一篇文章(windows rman自动备份并传输到远程服务器处理方法),通过本地备份,然后拷贝到远程共享目录实现,相对来说该方案比较繁琐,这次尝试直接备份到共享目录
1. 服务配置
20190926221926


oracle数据库服务和监听服务配置使用此账户的方式登录(而不是默认的本地系统账号)

2.在目标服务器中配置共享
20190926222029

主要两台win服务器登录用户名和密码需要一致,最好也是数据库安装用户

3.数据库备份脚本
20190926222130

备份脚本路径使用\\方式而不能使用别名盘符

4.数据库备份计划任务
20190926222951

运行任务时请使用下列用户选择ORA_DBA

ORACLE 12C RMAN 功能增强

在ORACLE 12C中对rman的功能有了不少增强,在以前的文章中写过RMAN RECOVER TABLE功能,这里另外补充rman增强的两个小功能(sql语句和数据文件分割)
数据库版本

SQL>  select * from v$version;

BANNER                                                                               CON_ID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 - 64bit Production              0
PL/SQL Release 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                                    0
CORE    12.1.0.1.0      Production                                                        0
TNS for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                            0
NLSRTL Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                                    0

rman对sql语句支持增强

[oracle@xifenfei tmp]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 12.1.0.1.0 - Production on Sat Jun 1 14:07:50 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: CDB (DBID=1922813718)

RMAN> select sysdate from dual;

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
SYSDATE  
---------
01-JUN-13

RMAN> alter session set nls_date_format='yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss';

Statement processed

RMAN>  select sysdate from dual;

SYSDATE            
-------------------
2013-06-01 14:16:48

RMAN> desc v$log

 Name                                      Null?    Type
 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
 GROUP#                                             NUMBER                      
 THREAD#                                            NUMBER                      
 SEQUENCE#                                          NUMBER                      
 BYTES                                              NUMBER                      
 BLOCKSIZE                                          NUMBER                      
 MEMBERS                                            NUMBER                      
 ARCHIVED                                           VARCHAR2(3)                 
 STATUS                                             VARCHAR2(16)                
 FIRST_CHANGE#                                      NUMBER                      
 FIRST_TIME                                         DATE                        
 NEXT_CHANGE#                                       NUMBER                      
 NEXT_TIME                                          DATE                        
 CON_ID                                             NUMBER                      

这里看到rman只是sql语句中的select和desc用法

rman分割数据文件增强

RMAN>  CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 3;

old RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 1 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET;
new RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 3 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET;
new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored

RMAN> backup incremental level 1 section size 30M datafile 1 format '/tmp/system_%U.rman';

Starting backup at 01-JUN-13
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=27 device type=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_2: SID=269 device type=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_3
channel ORA_DISK_3: SID=24 device type=DISK
no parent backup or copy of datafile 1 found
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 1 datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=+DATA/cdb/system01.dbf
backing up blocks 1 through 3840
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 01-JUN-13
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting incremental level 1 datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=+DATA/cdb/system01.dbf
……………………
backing up blocks 96001 through 99840
channel ORA_DISK_3: starting piece 26 at 01-JUN-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 24 at 01-JUN-13
piece handle=/tmp/system_02ob3pg1_24_1.rman tag=TAG20130601T144518 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:08
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 1 datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=+DATA/cdb/system01.dbf
backing up blocks 99841 through 101120
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 27 at 01-JUN-13
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 25 at 01-JUN-13
piece handle=/tmp/system_02ob3pg1_25_1.rman tag=TAG20130601T144518 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
channel ORA_DISK_3: finished piece 26 at 01-JUN-13
piece handle=/tmp/system_02ob3pg1_26_1.rman tag=TAG20130601T144518 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:06
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 27 at 01-JUN-13
piece handle=/tmp/system_02ob3pg1_27_1.rman tag=TAG20130601T144518 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
Finished backup at 01-JUN-13

备份文件情况

[oracle@xifenfei tmp]$ ll -ltr system*
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 14761984 Jun  1 14:45 system_02ob3pg1_1_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba  9535488 Jun  1 14:45 system_02ob3pg1_2_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 16973824 Jun  1 14:45 system_02ob3pg1_4_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 18284544 Jun  1 14:45 system_02ob3pg1_3_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 12804096 Jun  1 14:45 system_02ob3pg1_5_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 29163520 Jun  1 14:45 system_02ob3pg1_6_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 31326208 Jun  1 14:46 system_02ob3pg1_7_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 30851072 Jun  1 14:46 system_02ob3pg1_8_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 30801920 Jun  1 14:46 system_02ob3pg1_9_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 23977984 Jun  1 14:46 system_02ob3pg1_11_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 28508160 Jun  1 14:46 system_02ob3pg1_10_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 30277632 Jun  1 14:46 system_02ob3pg1_12_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 31498240 Jun  1 14:46 system_02ob3pg1_13_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 31498240 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_14_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 31498240 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_15_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 30507008 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_17_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 30834688 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_16_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 31498240 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_18_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 30244864 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_19_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 29016064 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_20_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 29212672 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_21_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 30728192 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_22_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 29384704 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_23_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 26566656 Jun  1 14:47 system_02ob3pg1_24_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 24928256 Jun  1 14:48 system_02ob3pg1_25_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba 19324928 Jun  1 14:48 system_02ob3pg1_26_1.rman
-rw-r----- 1 oracle dba  6291456 Jun  1 14:48 system_02ob3pg1_27_1.rman

在12C之前的版本,ORACLE 11GR2只是对于全备的备份集备份(非增量,非copy备份方式)方式支持数据文件分割备份功能,对于11.2之前的版本均不支持该功能.在12C中rman可以支持对于全备,增量备份,copy备份全部支持分割数据文件备份(CONTROLFILE,SPFILE不支持)

跳过rman坏块恢复

在有些情况下,我们仅有一份rman备份,而这个时候rman 备份有出现坏块,使得我们的还原/恢复工作无法继续下去,导致数据大量丢失.我们可以通过设置event 19548/19549来跳过坏块,最大程度抢救数据
rman备份数据文件

C:\Users\XIFENFEI>rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Thu Jun 6 20:31:19 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: XIFENFEI (DBID=1422012639)

RMAN> backup tablespace users format 'f:/users_bak.rman';

Starting backup at 06-JUN-13
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=197 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00004 name=E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS01.DBF
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 06-JUN-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 06-JUN-13
piece handle=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN tag=TAG20130606T203154 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
Finished backup at 06-JUN-13

切换归档日志

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            E:\oracle\product\11.2.0\dbhome_1\RDBMS
Oldest online log sequence     95
Next log sequence to archive   97
Current log sequence           97

重命名数据文件

SQL> shutdown immediate
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

--------------------------------------
e:\oracle\oradata\XIFENFEI>move USERS01.DBF USERS01_bak.DBF
移动了         1 个文件。
--------------------------------------

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  418484224 bytes
Fixed Size                  1385052 bytes
Variable Size             327159204 bytes
Database Buffers           83886080 bytes
Redo Buffers                6053888 bytes
Database mounted.
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 4 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 4: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS01.DBF'

破坏备份集
破坏前


破坏后


这里很明显,我通过ue把rman备份集中的T修改为了A,肯定破坏了文件,使之出现坏块

rman还原数据文件

C:\Users\XIFENFEI>rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Thu Jun 6 21:02:41 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: XIFENFEI (DBID=1422012639, not open)

RMAN> restore datafile 4;

Starting restore at 06-JUN-13
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=63 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00004 to E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS
01.DBF
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN
channel ORA_DISK_1: ORA-19870: error while restoring backup piece F:\USERS_BAK.R
MAN
ORA-19612: datafile 4 not restored due to missing or corrupt data

failover to previous backup

creating datafile file number=4 name=E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS01.DBF
Finished restore at 06-JUN-13

这里可以清晰的看到rman报ORA-19612错误,restore 失败,alert日志为:

Thu Jun 06 21:02:31 2013
ALTER DATABASE OPEN
Errors in file E:\ORACLE\diag\rdbms\xifenfei\xff\trace\xff_dbw0_7400.trc:
ORA-01157: ????/?????? 4 - ??? DBWR ????
ORA-01110: ???? 4: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS01.DBF'
ORA-27041: ??????
OSD-04002: unable to open file
O/S-Error: (OS 2) 系统找不到指定的文件。
Errors in file E:\ORACLE\diag\rdbms\xifenfei\xff\trace\xff_ora_4272.trc:
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 4 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 4: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS01.DBF'
ORA-1157 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE OPEN...
Thu Jun 06 21:02:33 2013
Checker run found 1 new persistent data failures
Thu Jun 06 21:03:23 2013
Corrupt block 101 found during reading backup piece, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, corr_type=3
Reread of blocknum=101, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=101, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=101, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=101, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=101, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Continuing reading piece F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, no other copies available.

rman备份集有坏块,导致rman还原无法正常进行下去,还原后的数据文件大小


观察已经正常还原出来数据文件情况

SQL> select CHECKPOINT_CHANGE#,file# from v$datafile_header;

CHECKPOINT_CHANGE#      FILE#
------------------ ----------
           1571582          1
           1571582          2
           1571582          3
             18379          4
           1571582          5
           1571582          6
           1571582          7

SQL> recover database datafile 4 ;
ORA-00274: illegal recovery option DATAFILE


SQL> recover datafile 4;
ORA-00279: change 18379 generated at 01/20/2013 17:13:56 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion :
E:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.2.0\DBHOME_1\RDBMS\ARC0000000001_0805223583.0001
ORA-00280: change 18379 for thread 1 is in sequence #1


Specify log: {<RET>=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}

rman只是还原了很小的一部分文件,做恢复提示需要从归档日志seq 1开始(某些情况可能需要其他归档,总之不是正常情况),证明rman还原异常

设置event事件还原

SQL> shutdown abort;
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup pfile='e:/pfile.txt' mount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  418484224 bytes
Fixed Size                  1385052 bytes
Variable Size             327159204 bytes
Database Buffers           83886080 bytes
Redo Buffers                6053888 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> show parameter event;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
event                                string      19548 trace name context forev
                                                 er, 19549 trace name context f
                                                 orever
Event 19548:This will attempt to restore content of the corrupted block if it is possible.
Event 19549:This will suppress erroring out during restore

rman还原数据文件

RMAN> restore datafile 4;

Starting restore at 06-JUN-13
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=63 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00004 to E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS
01.DBF
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN tag=TAG20130606T203154
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35
Finished restore at 06-JUN-13

这里证明数据库rman有坏块通过rman还原成功,alert日志提示如下

Thu Jun 06 21:29:53 2013
WARNING: The block that appears to be block number 100
         in file 4 is corrupt in backup piece F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN.
         Such blocks would usually be formatted as empty
         in the restored file, but event 19548 has been
         set to include the block as-is in the restored
         file.
Corrupt block 102 found during reading backup piece, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, corr_type=-2
Reread of blocknum=102, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=102, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=102, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=102, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=102, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Continuing reading piece F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, no other copies available.
…………
Corrupt block 258 found during reading backup piece, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, corr_type=-2
Reread of blocknum=258, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=258, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=258, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=258, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=258, file=F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, found same corrupt data
Continuing reading piece F:\USERS_BAK.RMAN, no other copies available.
WARNING: some data in the backup of file 4 was missing
         or corrupt.  Event 19549 has been set to allow
         the file to be restored anyway.
           backup header block count: 5369
           backup actual block count: 5212
              backup header checksum: -218250743
              backup actual checksum: 1442665538
Full restore complete of datafile 4 E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS01.DBF.  Elapsed time: 0:00:25 
  checkpoint is 1570136
  last deallocation scn is 1508457

这里rman还原依然遇到很多坏块,但是均跳过坏块,还是完整的恢复出来的数据文件(大小)


rman还原数据文件

RMAN> recover datafile 4;

Starting recover at 06-JUN-13
using channel ORA_DISK_1

starting media recovery

archived log for thread 1 with sequence 94 is already on disk as file E:\ORACLE\
PRODUCT\11.2.0\DBHOME_1\RDBMS\ARC0000000094_0805223583.0001
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 95 is already on disk as file E:\ORACLE\
PRODUCT\11.2.0\DBHOME_1\RDBMS\ARC0000000095_0805223583.0001
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 96 is already on disk as file E:\ORACLE\
PRODUCT\11.2.0\DBHOME_1\RDBMS\ARC0000000096_0805223583.0001
archived log file name=E:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.2.0\DBHOME_1\RDBMS\ARC0000000094_080
5223583.0001 thread=1 sequence=94
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
Finished recover at 06-JUN-13

这里可以明显的看到在recover过程中数据库应用的是备份后的所有归档,数据文件是正常被还原出来(坏块除外)

查询对象

SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> conn test/test
Connected.
SQL> select * from tab;

TNAME                          TABTYPE  CLUSTERID
------------------------------ ------- ----------
STB101                         TABLE

SQL> select count(*) from stb101;
select count(*) from stb101
                     *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-08103: object no longer exists

dbv检查坏块

e:\oracle\oradata\XIFENFEI>dbv file=USERS01.DBF

DBVERIFY: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Thu Jun 6 23:59:49 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\XIFENFEI\USERS01.DBF

Page 100 is marked corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x01000064 (file 4, block 100)
Bad check value found during dbv:
Data in bad block:
 type: 30 format: 2 rdba: 0x01000064
 last change scn: 0x0000.00004890 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x48901e01
 check value in block header: 0x8311
 computed block checksum: 0x20



DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 12320
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 4952
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 0
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 7069
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 298

证明设置了event之后,rman确实跳过了备份集中的坏块,而且是直接还原了坏块内容,证明了event 19548和19549作用

补充说明
在非特殊情况下强烈不建议设置相关event跳过rman中的坏块来还原/恢复数据库,这样将对数据的丢失,甚至数据库是否可以正常open不好评估,rman备份重要,确保rman备份可用也很重要.

非归档异常数据库rman备份

最近在数据库恢复中遇到一个案例:xx单位1.5T oracle 10.2.0.4(redhat 4.5),因为异常关闭操作系统,导致数据库不能启动,需要帮忙恢复。该数据库为非归档模式,使用裸设备,一个裸设备文件大小(35G),数据库文件大小4-30G都有,现在客户要求我们不能对现有环境进行任何操作,需要克隆一份数据库出来,然后在克隆的库上进行数据库恢复操作.数据库环境的克隆最好的方法就是使用rman来完成,但是该数据库为非归档模式,无法直接使用rman进行备份操作.最后采取dd的方式处理(需要注意dd文件大小为block_size*(v$datafile.blocks+1)+v$datafile.offset).因为不能使用rman的一条命令处理,心里一直不舒服,在家里实验,终于还是确定可以通过重建控制文件的方法来欺骗rman是归档模式,来实现rman完成类似工作.
数据库非非归档模式

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
CORE    11.2.0.3.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              No Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Disabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     7
Current log sequence           9

非归档模式尝试rman 备份

RMAN> backup database format '/u01/oracle/oradata/orall1g_%U';

Starting backup at 22-JAN-13
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=10 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
RMAN-03009: failure of backup command on ORA_DISK_1 channel at 01/22/2013 16:10:49
ORA-19602: cannot backup or copy active file in NOARCHIVELOG mode
continuing other job steps, job failed will not be re-run
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current control file in backup set
including current SPFILE in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 22-JAN-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 22-JAN-13
piece handle=/u01/oracle/oradata/orall1g_13o02k8a_1_1 tag=TAG20130122T161048 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================

rman的backup or copy命令不能在非归档模式下执行

尝试修改数据库为归档模式

SQL> alter database archivelog;
alter database archivelog
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00265: instance recovery required, cannot set ARCHIVELOG mode

数据库非正常关闭,不能修改归档模式

重建控制文件

SQL> alter database backup controlfile to trace as '/tmp/ctl';

Database altered.

SQL> shutdown immediate
ORA-01109: database not open


Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

--备份当前控制文件(保留控制文件现场)

SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  313860096 bytes
Fixed Size                  1344652 bytes
Variable Size             285215604 bytes
Database Buffers           20971520 bytes
Redo Buffers                6328320 bytes
SQL> CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORA11G" NORESETLOGS  ARCHIVELOG
  2      MAXLOGFILES 16
  3      MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
  4      MAXDATAFILES 100
  5      MAXINSTANCES 8
  6      MAXLOGHISTORY 292
  7  LOGFILE
  8    GROUP 1 '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/redo01.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  9    GROUP 2 '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/redo02.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,
 10    GROUP 3 '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/redo03.log'  SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512
 11  DATAFILE
 12    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/system01.dbf',
 13    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/sysaux01.dbf',
 14    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf',
 15    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/dbfs01.dbf',
 16    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/tts_xifenfei02.dbf',
 17    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/tts_xifenfei01.dbf',
 18    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/system02.dbf',
 19    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/czum01.dbf',
 20    '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/undotbs02.dbf'
 21  CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK
 22  ;

Control file created.

数据库已经变为归档模式

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Disabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     7
Next log sequence to archive   7
Current log sequence           9

归档模式尝试rman备份

RMAN> backup datafile 1 format '/u01/oracle/oradata/system01_%U';

Starting backup at 22-JAN-13
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 22-JAN-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 22-JAN-13
piece handle=/u01/oracle/oradata/system01_02o02kl7_1_1 tag=TAG20130122T161742 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:15
Finished backup at 22-JAN-13

RMAN-06497: WARNING: control file is not current, control file AUTOBACKUP skipped

因为现在的控制文件是新创建的,不能算是数据库的当前控制文件,所以未被rman自动备份(很好理解,重建控制文件后,我们做恢复都要使用using backup controlfile命令)

总结说明
1.数据库为非归档模式,不能使用rman的backup和copy命令来备份
2.因为数据库为非正常关闭不能直接修改为归档模式
3.通过重建控制文件修改数据库(注意备份)为归档模式实现rman正常备份
4.当rman备份好之后,使用原先控制文件替换现在控制文件