解决ORA-00701: object necessary for warmstarting database cannot be altered不再是奢求

在Oracle使用的过程中,经常遭遇一些核心index出现异常,导致数据库无法正常使用,特别是在数据库open的情况下,因为出现这些bootstrap$中的部分index是无法通过设置event38003进行重建,从而导致数据库无法正常使用,最常见异常index 有:I_ICOL1, I_TS1, I_CDEF1, I_CDEF2, I_CDEF3, I_CDEF4, I_PROXY_DATA$, I_IND1, I_TS#, I_UNDO1, I_UNDO2, I_COBJ#, I_USER1, I_USER2, I_CON1, I_CON2, I_FILE1, I_FILE2, I_FILE#_BLOCK#, I_USER#, I_OBJ#, I_PROXY_ROLE_DATA$_1, I_PROXY_ROLE_DATA$_2, I_CCOL1, I_CCOL2, I_TAB1, I_COL1, I_COL2, I_COL3, I_OBJ1, I_OBJ2, I_OBJ3, I_OBJ4, I_OBJ5
重建的index异常报错有:ORA-00701,ORA-01410,ORA-08102,ORA-08103,ORA-01578,ORA-01499,ORA-00600等各类错误
这里假设Oracle数据库一个非常核心的表OBJ$中的I_OBJ1异常,现在准备重建它,大概步骤如下:
1. 假设异常index信息(I_OBJ1)

SQL> alter index sys.i_obj1 rebuild;
alter index sys.i_obj1 rebuild
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00701: object necessary for warmstarting database cannot be altered

SQL> SELECT SQL_TEXT FROM BOOTSTRAP$ WHERE SQL_TEXT LIKE '%obj%';

SQL_TEXT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX I_OBJ1 ON OBJ$(OBJ#,OWNER#,TYPE#) PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXT
RANS 255 STORAGE (  INITIAL 64K NEXT 1024K MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645 PC
TINCREASE 0 OBJNO 36 EXTENTS (FILE 1 BLOCK 336))

2. 创建获取异常index所属表

SQL>  select table_name from dba_indexes where owner='SYS' AND INDEX_NAME='I_OBJ1';

TABLE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OBJ$

3. 获取obj$ ddl 语句

SQL> set long 10000
SQL> set pages 1000
SQL>  SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','OBJ$','SYS') FROM DUAL;

DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','OBJ$','SYS')
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  CREATE TABLE "SYS"."OBJ$"
   (    "OBJ#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "DATAOBJ#" NUMBER,
        "OWNER#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "NAME" VARCHAR2(128) NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "NAMESPACE" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "SUBNAME" VARCHAR2(128),
        "TYPE#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "CTIME" DATE NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "MTIME" DATE NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "STIME" DATE NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "STATUS" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "REMOTEOWNER" VARCHAR2(128),
        "LINKNAME" VARCHAR2(128),
        "FLAGS" NUMBER,
        "OID$" RAW(16),
        "SPARE1" NUMBER,
        "SPARE2" NUMBER,
        "SPARE3" NUMBER,
        "SPARE4" VARCHAR2(1000),
        "SPARE5" VARCHAR2(1000),
        "SPARE6" DATE,
        "SIGNATURE" RAW(16),
        "SPARE7" NUMBER,
        "SPARE8" NUMBER,
        "SPARE9" NUMBER
   ) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
 NOCOMPRESS LOGGING
  STORAGE(INITIAL 16384 NEXT 106496 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"

4. 获取obj$相关index 语句

SQL>  SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('INDEX',INDEX_NAME,'SYS') FROM dba_indexes where owner='SYS' AND TABLE_NAME='OBJ$';

DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('INDEX',INDEX_NAME,'SYS')
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ5" ON "SYS"."OBJ$" ("SPARE3", "NAME", "NAMESPA
CE", "TYPE#", "OWNER#", "REMOTEOWNER", "LINKNAME", "SUBNAME", "OBJ#")
  PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"


  CREATE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ4" ON "SYS"."OBJ$" ("DATAOBJ#", "TYPE#", "OWNER#")
  PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"


  CREATE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ3" ON "SYS"."OBJ$" ("OID$")
  PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"


  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ2" ON "SYS"."OBJ$" ("OWNER#", "NAME", "NAMESPA
CE", "REMOTEOWNER", "LINKNAME", "SUBNAME", "TYPE#", "SPARE3", "OBJ#")
  PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  STORAGE(INITIAL 16384 NEXT 106496 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"


  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ1" ON "SYS"."OBJ$" ("OBJ#", "OWNER#", "TYPE#")

  PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"

5. 创建obj$img表和相关index

SQL>   CREATE TABLE "SYS"."OBJ$IMG"
  2     (    "OBJ#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
  3          "DATAOBJ#" NUMBER,
  4          "OWNER#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
  5          "NAME" VARCHAR2(128) NOT NULL ENABLE,
  6          "NAMESPACE" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
  7          "SUBNAME" VARCHAR2(128),
  8          "TYPE#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
  9          "CTIME" DATE NOT NULL ENABLE,
 10          "MTIME" DATE NOT NULL ENABLE,
 11          "STIME" DATE NOT NULL ENABLE,
 12          "STATUS" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
 13          "REMOTEOWNER" VARCHAR2(128),
 14          "LINKNAME" VARCHAR2(128),
 15          "FLAGS" NUMBER,
 16          "OID$" RAW(16),
 17          "SPARE1" NUMBER,
 18          "SPARE2" NUMBER,
 19          "SPARE3" NUMBER,
 20          "SPARE4" VARCHAR2(1000),
 21          "SPARE5" VARCHAR2(1000),
 22          "SPARE6" DATE,
 23          "SIGNATURE" RAW(16),
 24          "SPARE7" NUMBER,
 25          "SPARE8" NUMBER,
 26          "SPARE9" NUMBER
 27     ) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
 28   NOCOMPRESS LOGGING
 29    STORAGE(INITIAL 16384 NEXT 106496 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
 30    PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
 31    BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
 32    TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"
 33  ;

Table created.

SQL> 
SQL>   CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ_5IMG" ON "SYS"."OBJ$IMG" ("SPARE3", "NAME", "NAMESPACE", "TYPE#", "OWNER#", "REMOTEOWNER", "LINKNAME", "SUBNAME", "OBJ#")
  2    PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  3    STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  4    PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  5    BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  6    TABLESPACE "SYSTEM";

Index created.

SQL>   CREATE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ4IMG" ON "SYS"."OBJ$IMG" ("DATAOBJ#", "TYPE#", "OWNER#")
  2    PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  3    STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  4    PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  5    BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  6    TABLESPACE "SYSTEM";   

Index created.

SQL>   CREATE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ3IMG" ON "SYS"."OBJ$IMG" ("OID$")
  2    PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  3    STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  4    PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  5    BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  6    TABLESPACE "SYSTEM";

Index created.

SQL>   CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ2IMG" ON "SYS"."OBJ$IMG" ("OWNER#", "NAME", "NAMESPACE", "REMOTEOWNER", "LINKNAME", "SUBNAME", "TYPE#", "SPARE3", "OBJ#")
  2    PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  3    STORAGE(INITIAL 16384 NEXT 106496 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  4    PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  5    BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  6    TABLESPACE "SYSTEM";

Index created.

SQL>   CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SYS"."I_OBJ1IMG" ON "SYS"."OBJ$IMG" ("OBJ#", "OWNER#", "TYPE#")
  2    PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  3    STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  4    PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  5    BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  6    TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"
  7  ;

Index created.

6. 获取bootstrap$语句

SQL> SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','BOOTSTRAP$','SYS') FROM DUAL;

DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','BOOTSTRAP$','SYS')
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  CREATE TABLE "SYS"."BOOTSTRAP$"
   (    "LINE#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "OBJ#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
        "SQL_TEXT" VARCHAR2(4000) NOT NULL ENABLE
   ) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
 NOCOMPRESS LOGGING
  STORAGE(INITIAL 57344 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"

7. 创建bootstrap$img表

SQL>   CREATE TABLE "SYS"."BOOTSTRAP$IMG"
  2     (    "LINE#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
  3          "OBJ#" NUMBER NOT NULL ENABLE,
  4          "SQL_TEXT" VARCHAR2(4000) NOT NULL ENABLE
  5     ) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
  6   NOCOMPRESS LOGGING
  7    STORAGE(INITIAL 57344 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  8    PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  9    BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
 10    TABLESPACE "SYSTEM"
 11  /

Table created.

8.插入数据

insert into obj$img select * from obj$;
insert into bootstrap$img select * from bootstrap$;
commit;

9. 删除bootstrap$img对象名

delete from bootstrap$img where obj# in 
 (select obj# from obj$ 
  where name in ('OBJ$',  'I_OBJ1',  'I_OBJ2', 'I_OBJ3', 'I_OBJ4', 'I_OBJ5',
                 'BOOTSTRAP$'));
commit;

10. 插入新创建对象

insert into bootstrap$img select * from bootstrap$tmpstr;
commit;

11. 关闭数据库

SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

12. bbed修改相关block值

[oracle@oel6 ~]$ bbed 
Password: 

BBED: Release 2.0.0.0.0 - Limited Production on Thu Aug 7 04:54:50 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

************* !!! For Oracle Internal Use only !!! ***************

BBED> set filename '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/system01.dbf'
        FILENAME        /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/system01.dbf

BBED> set blocksize 8192
        BLOCKSIZE       8192

BBED> set block 1
        BLOCK#          1

BBED> set mode edit
        MODE            Edit

BBED> set count 32
        COUNT           32

BBED> m /x e81d
Warning: contents of previous BIFILE will be lost. Proceed? (Y/N) y
 File: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/system01.dbf (0)
 Block: 1                Offsets:   196 to  227           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 e81d4000 12000000 00000000 41bad632 15bad632 01000000 00000000 00000000 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> m /x 5200 offset +2
 File: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/system01.dbf (0)
 Block: 1                Offsets:   198 to  229           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 52001200 00000000 000041ba d63215ba d6320100 00000000 00000000 00000000 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> d offset 96
 File: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/system01.dbf (0)
 Block: 1                Offsets:   196 to  227           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 e81d5200 12000000 00000000 41bad632 15bad632 01000000 00000000 00000000 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> sum apply
Check value for File 0, Block 1:
current = 0x5fbf, required = 0x5fbf

BBED> verify
DBVERIFY - Verification starting
FILE = /u01/app/oracle/oradata/XIFENFEI/system01.dbf
BLOCK = 1


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Blocks Examined         : 1
Total Blocks Processed (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Processed (Index): 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Index): 0
Total Blocks Empty            : 0
Total Blocks Marked Corrupt   : 0
Total Blocks Influx           : 0
Message 531 not found;  product=RDBMS; facility=BBED


BBED> exit

13. 启动数据库

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  663945216 bytes
Fixed Size                  2291808 bytes
Variable Size             369100704 bytes
Database Buffers          289406976 bytes
Redo Buffers                3145728 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

14. 验证I_OBJ1 index重建情况

SQL> SELECT OBJECT_ID,DATA_OBJECT_ID,CREATED FROM DBA_OBJECTS WHERE OBJECT_NAME='I_OBJ1';

 OBJECT_ID DATA_OBJECT_ID CREATED
---------- -------------- ---------
     77120          77120 06-AUG-14

SQL> !date  
Thu Aug  6 05:29:25 CST 2014

SQL> SELECT HEADER_FILE,HEADER_BLOCK FROM DBA_SEGMENTS WHERE SEGMENT_NAME='I_OBJ1';

HEADER_FILE HEADER_BLOCK
----------- ------------
          1        77296

SQL> SELECT SQL_TEXT FROM BOOTSTRAP$ WHERE SQL_TEXT LIKE '%obj%';

SQL_TEXT
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
create unique index i_obj1 on obj$(obj#, owner#, type#) PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 STORAGE (  INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 M
AXEXTENTS 2147483645 PCTINCREASE 0 OBJNO 77120 EXTENTS (FILE 1 BLOCK 77296))

create unique index i_obj2 on obj$(owner#, name, namespace,remoteowner, linkname, subname, type#, spare3, obj#) PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS
255 STORAGE (  INITIAL 16384 NEXT 106496 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645 PCTINCREASE 0 OBJNO 77119 EXTENTS (FILE 1 BLOCK 77288))

create index i_obj3 on obj$(oid$) PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 STORAGE (  INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645 P
CTINCREASE 0 OBJNO 77118 EXTENTS (FILE 1 BLOCK 77280))

create index i_obj4 on obj$(dataobj#, type#, owner#) PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 STORAGE (  INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXE
XTENTS 2147483645 PCTINCREASE 0 OBJNO 77117 EXTENTS (FILE 1 BLOCK 77272))

create unique index i_obj5 on obj$(spare3, name, namespace, type#, owner#, remoteowner, linkname, subname, obj#) PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS
 255 STORAGE (  INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645 PCTINCREASE 0 OBJNO 77116 EXTENTS (FILE 1 BLOCK 77264))

因为重建bootstrap$中的核心index是一个复杂而且风险非常大的事情,在你无法确定风险或者无法正常完成此类操作之时,如有需要请联系我
Phone:13429648788    Q Q:107644445    E-Mail:dba@xifenfei.com

system ORA-01578 坏块数据库恢复

半夜朋友打来求救电话,说xx医院his系统因为存储异常导致system坏块无法正常启动,因为是win平台无法使用bbed,无法修复system 坏块,请求技术支持
dbv检查system文件报坏块
1


对应具体地址为:file 1 block 39041和66738

判断控制文件异常
通过数据库恢复检查脚本(Oracle Database Recovery Check)脚本检测数据库发现控制文件明显异常(checkpoint scn)
2
3


尝试恢复数据库
4


因此对该库进行了不完全恢复,然后尝试resetlogs打开数据库,数据库报ORA-600 2662错误

Fri Aug 29 02:35:08 2014
alter database open resetlogs
Fri Aug 29 02:35:11 2014
RESETLOGS after complete recovery through change 451371288
Resetting resetlogs activation ID 1232269761 (0x4972f1c1)
Fri Aug 29 02:35:15 2014
Setting recovery target incarnation to 3
Fri Aug 29 02:35:15 2014
Assigning activation ID 1384652231 (0x52881dc7)
LGWR: STARTING ARCH PROCESSES
ARC0 started with pid=17, OS id=1084
Fri Aug 29 02:35:15 2014
ARC0: Archival started
ARC1: Archival started
LGWR: STARTING ARCH PROCESSES COMPLETE
ARC1 started with pid=18, OS id=2836
Fri Aug 29 02:35:15 2014
Thread 1 opened at log sequence 1
  Current log# 1 seq# 1 mem# 0: Z:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\10.2.0\ORCL\REDO01.LOG
Successful open of redo thread 1
Fri Aug 29 02:35:15 2014
MTTR advisory is disabled because FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is not set
Fri Aug 29 02:35:15 2014
ARC1: Becoming the 'no FAL' ARCH
ARC1: Becoming the 'no SRL' ARCH
Fri Aug 29 02:35:15 2014
ARC0: Becoming the heartbeat ARCH
Fri Aug 29 02:35:15 2014
SMON: enabling cache recovery
Fri Aug 29 02:35:16 2014
Errors in file d:\oracle\product\10.2.0\admin\orcl\udump\orcl_ora_4824.trc:
ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [2662], [0], [451371311], [0], [451374534], [8388977], [], []

Fri Aug 29 02:35:16 2014
Errors in file d:\oracle\product\10.2.0\admin\orcl\udump\orcl_ora_4824.trc:
ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [2662], [0], [451371311], [0], [451374534], [8388977], [], []

Fri Aug 29 02:35:16 2014
Error 600 happened during db open, shutting down database
USER: terminating instance due to error 600
Fri Aug 29 02:35:17 2014
Errors in file d:\oracle\product\10.2.0\admin\orcl\bdump\orcl_smon_2928.trc:
ORA-00600: ??????, ??: [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []

Instance terminated by USER, pid = 4824
ORA-1092 signalled during: alter database open resetlogs...

ORA-600 2662 该错误解决思路很明显,推进scn,数据库报ORA-01578

Fri Aug 29 02:42:47 2014
SMON: enabling cache recovery
Fri Aug 29 02:42:47 2014
Successfully onlined Undo Tablespace 1.
Dictionary check beginning
Dictionary check complete
Fri Aug 29 02:42:49 2014
SMON: enabling tx recovery
Fri Aug 29 02:42:49 2014
Database Characterset is ZHS16GBK
Opening with internal Resource Manager plan
where NUMA PG = 1, CPUs = 16
replication_dependency_tracking turned off (no async multimaster replication found)
Fri Aug 29 02:42:50 2014
Errors in file d:\oracle\product\10.2.0\admin\orcl\bdump\orcl_smon_4804.trc:
ORA-00604: 递归 SQL 级别 1 出现错误
ORA-01578: ORACLE 数据块损坏 (文件号 1, 块号 39041)
ORA-01110: 数据文件 1: 'Z:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\10.2.0\ORCL\SYSTEM01.DBF'

Fri Aug 29 02:42:50 2014
LOGSTDBY: Validating controlfile with logical metadata
Fri Aug 29 02:42:51 2014
LOGSTDBY: Validation complete
ORA-604 signalled during: alter database open...

使用event跳过坏块,启动数据库成功

Fri Aug 29 02:48:59 2014
SMON: enabling cache recovery
Fri Aug 29 02:49:00 2014
Successfully onlined Undo Tablespace 1.
Fri Aug 29 02:49:00 2014
SMON: enabling tx recovery
Fri Aug 29 02:49:00 2014
Database Characterset is ZHS16GBK
Opening with internal Resource Manager plan
where NUMA PG = 1, CPUs = 16
replication_dependency_tracking turned off (no async multimaster replication found)
Starting background process QMNC
QMNC started with pid=34, OS id=3096
Fri Aug 29 02:49:01 2014
db_recovery_file_dest_size of 4096 MB is 0.00% used. This is a
user-specified limit on the amount of space that will be used by this
database for recovery-related files, and does not reflect the amount of
space available in the underlying filesystem or ASM diskgroup.
Fri Aug 29 02:49:01 2014
Completed: alter database open

查询坏块对象
5
6


因为这些对象均不是核心对象,直接进行truncate然后插入老数据

后续还有大量错误修复

ORA-12012: error on auto execute of job 1
ORA-08102: index key not found, obj# 239, file 1, block 1674 (2)

ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [kcbz_check_objd_typ], [0], [0], [1], [], [], [], []

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [6749], [3], [12606796], [173], [], [], [], []

ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [13013], [52898], [52895], [38288618], [44], [38288618], [17], []

ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [13013], [5001], [52895], [38286476], [5], [38286476], [17], []

再次说明,数据库恢复不要看成多神秘,就是几个参数搞定,更加不要神化有坏块就bbed修复

一起ORA-600 3020故障恢复的大体思路

recover database 报ORA-600 3020

Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 2 Seq 5729 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\REDO02.LOG
Tue Aug 19 19:37:29 2014
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_pr0s_4296.trc  (incident=39403):
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [3020], [3], [240], [12583152], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
ORA-10567: Redo is inconsistent with data block (file# 3, block# 240)
ORA-10564: tablespace UNDOTBS1
ORA-01110: data file 3: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\UNDOTBS01.DBF'
ORA-10560: block type 'KTU SMU HEADER BLOCK'
Incident details in: d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_39403\yygdb_pr0s_4296_i39403.trc
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [3020], [2], [90586], [8479194], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
ORA-10567: Redo is inconsistent with data block (file# 2, block# 90586)
ORA-10564: tablespace SYSAUX
ORA-01110: data file 2: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSAUX01.DBF'
ORA-10561: block type 'TRANSACTION MANAGED DATA BLOCK', data object# 6087
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_12460.trc  (incident=39147):
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [3020], [3], [240], [12583152], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
ORA-10567: Redo is inconsistent with data block (file# 3, block# 240)
ORA-10564: tablespace UNDOTBS1
ORA-01110: data file 3: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGD
Incident details in: d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_39147\yygdb_ora_12460_i39147.trc
Tue Aug 19 19:37:31 2014
Trace dumping is performing id=[cdmp_20140819193731]
Tue Aug 19 19:37:32 2014
Recovery Slave PR0S previously exited with an exception
Shutting down recovery slaves due to error 10877
Media Recovery failed with error 10877
ORA-283 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  database  ...

使用allow 1 corruption跳3020错误继续恢复

Tue Aug 19 19:38:53 2014
ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  database allow 1 corruption  
Media Recovery Start
Fast Parallel Media Recovery enabled
 ALLOW CORRUPTION option must use serial recovery
Warning: Datafile 10 (D:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.1.0\DB_1\ORADATA\SAMPLE\LAYOUT_DB.DBF) is offline during full 
database recovery and will not be recovered
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 2 Seq 5729 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\REDO02.LOG
CORRUPTING BLOCK 240 OF FILE 3 AND CONTINUING RECOVERY
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_12460.trc:
ORA-10567: Redo is inconsistent with data block (file# 3, block# 240)
ORA-10564: tablespace UNDOTBS1
ORA-01110: 数据文件 3: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\UNDOTBS01.DBF'
ORA-10560: block type 'KTU SMU HEADER BLOCK'
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_12460.trc  (incident=39148):
ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [3020], [2], [90586], [8479194], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
ORA-10567: Redo is inconsistent with data block (file# 2, block# 90586)
ORA-10564: tablespace SYSAUX
ORA-01110: 数据文件 2: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSAUX01.DBF'
ORA-10561: block type 'TRANSACTION MANAGED DATA BLOCK', data object# 6087
Incident details in: d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_39148\yygdb_ora_12460_i39148.trc
Media Recovery failed with error 600
ORA-283 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  database allow 1 corruption  ...
Tue Aug 19 19:38:56 2014
Trace dumping is performing id=[cdmp_20140819193856]
Tue Aug 19 19:38:59 2014
Sweep Incident[39148]: completed
Tue Aug 19 19:39:05 2014
ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  database allow 1 corruption  
Media Recovery Start
Fast Parallel Media Recovery enabled
 ALLOW CORRUPTION option must use serial recovery
Warning: Datafile 10 (D:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.1.0\DB_1\ORADATA\SAMPLE\LAYOUT_DB.DBF) is offline during full 
database recovery and will not be recovered
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 2 Seq 5729 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\REDO02.LOG
CORRUPTING BLOCK 90586 OF FILE 2 AND CONTINUING RECOVERY
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_12460.trc:
ORA-10567: Redo is inconsistent with data block (file# 2, block# 90586)
ORA-10564: tablespace SYSAUX
ORA-01110: 数据文件 2: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSAUX01.DBF'
ORA-10561: block type 'TRANSACTION MANAGED DATA BLOCK', data object# 6087
Completed: ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  database allow 1 corruption  

继续open数据库报ORA-01578错误,数据库无法open

Thread 1 opened at log sequence 5730
  Current log# 3 seq# 5730 mem# 0: E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\REDO03.LOG
Successful open of redo thread 1
MTTR advisory is disabled because FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is not set
Tue Aug 19 19:39:34 2014
SMON: enabling cache recovery
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_12460.trc  (incident=39149):
ORA-01578: ORACLE 数据块损坏 (文件号 3, 块号 240)
ORA-01110: 数据文件 3: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\UNDOTBS01.DBF'
Incident details in: d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_39149\yygdb_ora_12460_i39149.trc
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_12460.trc  (incident=39150):
ORA-00353: 日志损坏接近块 520 更改 101455257 时间 08/18/2014 08:22:54
ORA-00312: 联机日志 1 线程 1: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\REDO01.LOG'
ORA-01578: ORACLE 数据块损坏 (文件号 3, 块号 240)
ORA-01110: 数据文件 3: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\UNDOTBS01.DBF'
Incident details in: d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_39150\yygdb_ora_12460_i39150.trc
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_39149\yygdb_ora_12460_i39149.trc:
ORA-00354: 损坏重做日志块标头
ORA-00353: 日志损坏接近块 520 更改 101455257 时间 08/18/2014 08:22:54
ORA-00312: 联机日志 1 线程 1: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\REDO01.LOG'
ORA-01578: ORACLE 数据块损坏 (文件号 3, 块号 240)
ORA-01110: 数据文件 3: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\UNDOTBS01.DBF'
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_12460.trc  (incident=39151):
Error 1578 happened during db open, shutting down database
USER (ospid: 12460): terminating the instance due to error 1578
Tue Aug 19 19:39:41 2014
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_dbw3_18508.trc  (incident=38659):
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # , block # )
Tue Aug 19 19:39:41 2014
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_dbw5_12160.trc  (incident=38675):
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # , block # )
Tue Aug 19 19:39:42 2014
Instance terminated by USER, pid = 12460
ORA-1092 signalled during: alter database open...
ORA-1092 : opiodr aborting process unknown ospid (5084_12460)

由于undo 表空间有坏块,导致数据库open失败,尝试修改undo_management= “MANUAL”,继续启动数据库

Tue Aug 19 19:50:06 2014
alter database open
Beginning crash recovery of 1 threads
 parallel recovery started with 16 processes
Started redo scan
Completed redo scan
 3 redo blocks read, 0 data blocks need recovery
Started redo application at
 Thread 1: logseq 5731, block 2, scn 101497289
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 1 Seq 5731 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\REDO01.LOG
Completed redo application of 0.00MB
Completed crash recovery at
 Thread 1: logseq 5731, block 5, scn 101517294
 0 data blocks read, 0 data blocks written, 3 redo blocks read
Tue Aug 19 19:50:08 2014
Thread 1 advanced to log sequence 5732 (thread open)
Thread 1 opened at log sequence 5732
  Current log# 2 seq# 5732 mem# 0: E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\REDO02.LOG
Successful open of redo thread 1
MTTR advisory is disabled because FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is not set
Tue Aug 19 19:50:08 2014
SMON: enabling cache recovery
Dictionary check beginning
Tablespace 'TEMP' #3 found in data dictionary,
but not in the controlfile. Adding to controlfile.
File #3 is offline, but is part of an online tablespace.
data file 3: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\UNDOTBS01.DBF'
File #10 is offline, but is part of an online tablespace.
data file 10: 'D:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.1.0\DB_1\ORADATA\SAMPLE\LAYOUT_DB.DBF'
File #11 is offline, but is part of an online tablespace.
data file 11: 'D:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.1.0\DB_1\ORADATA\SAMPLE\LAYOUT.DBF'
Dictionary check complete
Verifying file header compatibility for 11g tablespace encryption..
Verifying 11g file header compatibility for tablespace encryption completed
SMON: enabling tx recovery
*********************************************************************
WARNING: The following temporary tablespaces contain no files.
         This condition can occur when a backup controlfile has
         been restored.  It may be necessary to add files to these
         tablespaces.  That can be done using the SQL statement:
 
         ALTER TABLESPACE <tablespace_name> ADD TEMPFILE
 
         Alternatively, if these temporary tablespaces are no longer
         needed, then they can be dropped.
           Empty temporary tablespace: TEMP
*********************************************************************
Database Characterset is ZHS16GBK
Opening with internal Resource Manager plan : on 4 X 8 NUMA system
**********************************************************
WARNING: Files may exists in db_recovery_file_dest
that are not known to the database. Use the RMAN command
CATALOG RECOVERY AREA to re-catalog any such files.
If files cannot be cataloged, then manually delete them
using OS command.
One of the following events caused this:
1. A backup controlfile was restored.
2. A standby controlfile was restored.
3. The controlfile was re-created.
4. db_recovery_file_dest had previously been enabled and
   then disabled.
**********************************************************
Hex dump of (file 1, block 7065) in trace file 
d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_14296.trc
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x00401b99 (file 1, block 7065)
Fractured block found during buffer read
Data in bad block:
 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x00401b99
 last change scn: 0x0000.060c1f83 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x06
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0xac3b0601
 check value in block header: 0x2e13
 computed block checksum: 0xa4ac
Reread of rdba: 0x00401b99 (file 1, block 7065) found same corrupted data
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_14296.trc  (incident=42814):
ORA-01578: ORACLE 数据块损坏 (文件号 1, 块号 7065)
ORA-01110: 数据文件 1: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF'
Incident details in: d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_42814\yygdb_ora_14296_i42814.trc
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_14296.trc  (incident=42815):
ORA-01578: ORACLE 数据块损坏 (文件号 1, 块号 7065)
ORA-01110: 数据文件 1: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF'
Incident details in: d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_42815\yygdb_ora_14296_i42815.trc
Tue Aug 19 19:50:12 2014
Trace dumping is performing id=[cdmp_20140819195012]
Tue Aug 19 19:50:12 2014
Sweep Incident[42814]: completed
Hex dump of (file 1, block 7065) in trace file 
d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_42814\yygdb_m000_11592_i42814_a.trc
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x00401b99 (file 1, block 7065)
Fractured block found during validation
Data in bad block:
 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x00401b99
 last change scn: 0x0000.060c1f83 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x06
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0xac3b0601
 check value in block header: 0x2e13
 computed block checksum: 0xa4ac
Reread of blocknum=7065, file=E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF. found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=7065, file=E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF. found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=7065, file=E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF. found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=7065, file=E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF. found same corrupt data
Reread of blocknum=7065, file=E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF. found same corrupt data
Hex dump of (file 1, block 7065) in trace file 
d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_14296.trc
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x00401b99 (file 1, block 7065)
Fractured block found during buffer read
Data in bad block:
 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x00401b99
 last change scn: 0x0000.060c1f83 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x06
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0xac3b0601
 check value in block header: 0x2e13
 computed block checksum: 0xa4ac
Reread of rdba: 0x00401b99 (file 1, block 7065) found same corrupted data
Corrupt Block Found
         TSN = 0, TSNAME = SYSTEM
         RFN = 1, BLK = 7065, RDBA = 4201369
         OBJN = 1164, OBJD = 1164, OBJECT = SYS_FBA_BARRIERSCN, SUBOBJECT = 
         SEGMENT OWNER = SYS, SEGMENT TYPE = Table Segment
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_14296.trc  (incident=42816):
ORA-01578: ORACLE 数据块损坏 (文件号 1, 块号 7065)
ORA-01110: 数据文件 1: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF'
Incident details in: d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\incident\incdir_42816\yygdb_ora_14296_i42816.trc
Trace dumping is performing id=[cdmp_20140819195014]
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_ora_14296.trc  (incident=42817):
Starting background process FBDA
Tue Aug 19 19:50:18 2014
FBDA started with pid=86, OS id=17700 
replication_dependency_tracking turned off (no async multimaster replication found)
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_fbda_17700.trc  (incident=42910):
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 1, block # 7065)
ORA-01110: data file 1: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF'
Trace dumping is performing id=[cdmp_20140819195018]
Errors in file d:\oracle\diag\rdbms\yygdb\yygdb\trace\yygdb_fbda_17700.trc  (incident=42911):
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 1, block # 7065)
ORA-01110: data file 1: 'E:\ORACLE\ORADATA\YYGDB\SYSTEM01.DBF'
LOGSTDBY: Validating controlfile with logical metadata
LOGSTDBY: Validation complete
ORA-604 signalled during: alter database open...

数据库不完全open成功,报了604错误,通过分析undo$,直接使用_offline_rollback_segments屏蔽了status$=5的回滚段,数据库open正常,因为system有大量坏块,幸运的是使用exp导出来几个业务用户的表数据全部OK.
数据库备份重于一切,别寄希望数据库非常规恢复

关于blockrecover 解决坏块相关测试与总结

悲剧的客户因为IBM p系列小机更换电源导致主机直接掉电,起来后发现数据库出现不少坏块,而且还有部分坏块中含有回滚事务,导致alert日志一直报smon回滚遇到坏块错误,该数据库版本是9.2.0.8 RAC,根据客户的备份情况,为了减少对业务的影响,决定使用blockrecover对其处理.这里通过10g数据库大概模拟出现含事务坏块的情况以及处理过程,重现了我们在处理的时候不确定的一些知识.
创建测试表

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
----------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Prod
PL/SQL Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
CORE    10.2.0.4.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production

SQL> conn /as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     231
Next log sequence to archive   233
Current log sequence           233
SQL> conn chf/xifenfei
Connected.
SQL> create table t_xifenfei
  2  as
  3  select * from dba_objects where rownum<10;

Table created.

SQL> select rowid,
  2  dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid) rel_fno,
  3  dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid) block
  4  from chf.t_xifenfei;

ROWID                 REL_FNO      BLOCK
------------------ ---------- ----------
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAA          4         28
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAB          4         28
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAC          4         28
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAD          4         28
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAE          4         28
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAF          4         28
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAG          4         28
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAH          4         28
AAANIqAAEAAAAAcAAI          4         28

9 rows selected.

当前的seq是233(也就是说我在233归档上创建了t_xienfei表)

dbv检查block

[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ dbv file='/u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf'

DBVERIFY: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Sun Jan 20 22:16:16 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 1280
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 904
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 38
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 44
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 294
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 0
Total Pages Influx           : 0
Highest block SCN            : 3224018224 (2860.3224018224)

证明无任何坏块

切换归档

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     233
Next log sequence to archive   235
Current log sequence           235

现在已经切换seq到235

rman备份我们需要测试block(file 4 block 28)对应的数据文件

RMAN>  backup datafile 4 format '/u01/oracle/oradata/xff_4.rman';

具体见:rman制造坏块,bbed修复坏块

模拟数据库进行其他操作

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     235
Next log sequence to archive   237
Current log sequence           237
SQL> conn chf/xifenfei
Connected.
SQL> create table t_xff 
  2  as
  3  select * from dba_objects;

Table created.

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

主要是为了模拟对其他block操作,对于block 28的恢复影响

对block 28进行操作

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     237
Next log sequence to archive   239
Current log sequence           239
SQL> update chf.t_xifenfei set object_name='www.orasos.com';

9 rows updated.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

在seq为239的时候对block 28进行了一次update操作

模拟其他业务操作

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     240
Next log sequence to archive   242
Current log sequence           242
SQL> delete from chf.t_xff ;

50491 rows deleted.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     242
Next log sequence to archive   244
Current log sequence           244
SQL>  alter system switch logfile;  

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

这里可以知道在seq为246的时候做了备份归档操作

备份归档操作

RMAN> backup archivelog all format '/u01/oracle/oradata/xff_arch_%U' delete input;

模拟继续操作

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     248
Next log sequence to archive   250
Current log sequence           250

SQL> update chf.t_xifenfei set object_name='www.orasos.com' where rownum<5;

4 rows updated.

这里可以发现,在seq为250的时候我们再次对block 28进行了操作

使用rman制造坏块

RMAN> BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE 4 block 28 clear;

dbv检查坏块

[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ dbv file='/u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf'

DBVERIFY: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Sun Jan 20 23:01:24 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf
Page 28 is influx - most likely media corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x0100001c (file 4, block 28)
Fractured block found during dbv: 
Data in bad block:
 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x0100001c
 last change scn: 0x0b2c.c02ab081 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0xb0c4a6ea
 check value in block header: 0x393f
 computed block checksum: 0xc917



DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 1280
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 903
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 38
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 47
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 291
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 1
Total Pages Influx           : 1
Highest block SCN            : 3224022228 (2860.3224022228)

强制kill数据库

[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ ps -ef|grep pmon
oracle    9744  9638  0 23:03 pts/1    00:00:00 grep pmon
oracle   32156     1  0 14:17 ?        00:00:10 ora_pmon_XFF
[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ kill -9 32156
[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ ps -ef|grep pmon
oracle    9751  9638  0 23:03 pts/1    00:00:00 grep pmon

为了模拟含事务的block出现坏块

启动数据库

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  306184192 bytes
Fixed Size                  1267164 bytes
Variable Size             109054500 bytes
Database Buffers          188743680 bytes
Redo Buffers                7118848 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> ALTER DATABASE OPEN;

Database altered.

数据库启动正常

查询坏块

SQL> select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;
select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei
                         *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 4, block # 28)
ORA-01110: data file 4: '/u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf'

alert日志

Sun Jan 20 23:04:37 2013
SMON: enabling tx recovery
Sun Jan 20 23:04:37 2013
Database Characterset is ZHS16GBK
Sun Jan 20 23:04:37 2013
Hex dump of (file 4, block 28) in trace file /u01/oracle/admin/XFF/bdump/xff_smon_9775.trc
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x0100001c (file 4, block 28)
Fractured block found during buffer read
Data in bad block:
 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x0100001c
 last change scn: 0x0b2c.c02ab081 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0xb0c4a6ea
 check value in block header: 0x393f
 computed block checksum: 0xc917
Reread of rdba: 0x0100001c (file 4, block 28) found same corrupted data
ORACLE Instance XFF (pid = 8) - Error 1578 encountered while recovering transaction (9, 37) on object 53802.
Sun Jan 20 23:04:38 2013
Errors in file /u01/oracle/admin/XFF/bdump/xff_smon_9775.trc:
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 4, block # 28)
ORA-01110: data file 4: '/u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf'

通过试验步骤和alert日志可以发现因为block有事务,但是被标记为了坏块,所以smon无法回滚该事务,从而出现alert中类似提示

继续切换归档

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     252
Next log sequence to archive   254
Current log sequence           254

移走归档

[oracle@xifenfei archivelog]$ ls -l
total 2224
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  360960 Jan 20 22:59 1_247_792679299.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall    1024 Jan 20 22:59 1_248_792679299.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1630208 Jan 20 23:04 1_249_792679299.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  249344 Jan 20 23:09 1_250_792679299.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall    1024 Jan 20 23:09 1_251_792679299.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall    4608 Jan 20 23:09 1_252_792679299.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall    1024 Jan 20 23:09 1_253_792679299.dbf
[oracle@xifenfei archivelog]$ mkdir bak
[oracle@xifenfei archivelog]$ mv *.dbf bak
[oracle@xifenfei archivelog]$ ll
total 4
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Jan 20 23:11 bak

为了重现,当我们使用blockrecover恢复的时候,如果缺少归档会怎么样

尝试blockrecover

RMAN> BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE 4 block 28;

Starting blockrecover at 20-JAN-13
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=135 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_2: sid=126 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_3
channel ORA_DISK_3: sid=125 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_4
channel ORA_DISK_4: sid=124 devtype=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring block(s)
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying block(s) to restore from backup set
restoring blocks of datafile 00004
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/oracle/oradata/xff_4.rman
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored block(s) from backup piece 1
piece handle=/u01/oracle/oradata/xff_4.rman tag=TAG20130120T222333
channel ORA_DISK_1: block restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01

starting media recovery

RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of blockrecover command at 01/20/2013 23:11:41
RMAN-06053: unable to perform media recovery because of missing log
RMAN-06025: no backup of log thread 1 seq 253 lowscn 12286830510311 found to restore
RMAN-06025: no backup of log thread 1 seq 252 lowscn 12286830510307 found to restore
RMAN-06025: no backup of log thread 1 seq 251 lowscn 12286830510305 found to restore
RMAN-06025: no backup of log thread 1 seq 250 lowscn 12286830509979 found to restore
RMAN-06025: no backup of log thread 1 seq 249 lowscn 12286830489543 found to restore
RMAN-06025: no backup of log thread 1 seq 248 lowscn 12286830489541 found to restore
RMAN-06025: no backup of log thread 1 seq 247 lowscn 12286830489279 found to restore

alert日志记录

Sun Jan 20 23:11:38 2013
alter database recover datafile list clear
Sun Jan 20 23:11:38 2013
Completed: alter database recover datafile list clear
Sun Jan 20 23:11:38 2013
Starting block media recovery
Sun Jan 20 23:11:39 2013
Media Recovery Log /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog/1_235_792679299.dbf
Sun Jan 20 23:11:41 2013
alter database recover cancel
Sun Jan 20 23:11:41 2013
Media Recovery Canceled
Completed: alter database recover cancel

blockrecover恢复途中或者异常终止,dbv检测

[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ dbv file=/u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf

DBVERIFY: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Sun Jan 20 23:18:29 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf
Page 28 is marked corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x0100001c (file 4, block 28)
Bad check value found during dbv: 
Data in bad block:
 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x0100001c
 last change scn: 0x0b2c.c02b0248 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x02480601
 check value in block header: 0x13fc
 computed block checksum: 0x663b



DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 1280
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 903
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 38
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 47
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 291
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 1
Total Pages Influx           : 0
Highest block SCN            : 3224022228 (2860.3224022228)

在blockrecover处理过程,或者处理失败的后,block依然是坏块,如果遇到这类情况,没有事务可以直接指定seq/scn/time的方法来恢复,如果有事务,需要指定恢复时间点过该事务的时间点,让smon能够正常回滚,从而使得smon进程正常工作

还原归档后继续测试

[oracle@xifenfei archivelog]$ mv bak/* ./

RMAN> BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE 4 block 28;

starting media recovery
archive log thread 1 sequence 247 is already on disk as file /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog/1_247_792679299.dbf
…………
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished blockrecover at 20-JAN-13

[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ dbv file=/u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf

DBVERIFY: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Sun Jan 20 23:15:43 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/users01.dbf


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 1280
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 904
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 38
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 47
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 291
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 0
Total Pages Influx           : 0
Highest block SCN            : 3224023169 (2860.3224023169)

>
blockrecover处理alert日志

Sun Jan 20 23:15:01 2013
Media Recovery Log /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog/1_250_792679299.dbf
Sun Jan 20 23:15:01 2013
Media Recovery Log /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/archivelog/1_251_792679299.dbf
Sun Jan 20 23:15:01 2013
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 3 Seq 252 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/redo03.log
Sun Jan 20 23:15:01 2013
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 1 Seq 253 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/redo01.log
Sun Jan 20 23:15:01 2013
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 2 Seq 254 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: /u01/oracle/oradata/XFF/redo02.log
Sun Jan 20 23:15:02 2013
Completed block media recovery

补充说明
1.在9i中使用blockrecover会在Archive destination中生产block的备份文件,类似469_519791_3063_2442393528.bkd(file 469 block 519791),需要注意Archive destination目录结尾需要”/”,不然可能出现直接写入和该目录并列的Archive destination+blockrecover产生文件;10g中不生成该文件;如果该block在9i中未备份,也不会在生产相关文件,而是利用归档恢复.
2.blockrecover需要还原从该block从备份之后的所有归档(如果被备份起来需要还原出来),如果缺少归档可能导致恢复失败,包括基于scn/seq/time的等
3.blockrecover在执行过程中或者执行异常终止,该block依然是坏块,不会对其他block产生影响.在使用blockrecover出现异常终止后的block修复,在后续blog中提供解决方法
4.对于不含事务的坏块,如果数据允许丢失可以通过设置event跳过坏块(特殊block除外),然后重建对象;对于含event的block 坏块,建议使用blockrecover处理或者直接恢复数据文件,如果没有备份,考试使用event跳过事务回滚,然后屏蔽坏块处理

table中各种类型block坏块是否能被跳过

在table遇到的各种坏块中,大部分情况,我们都可以通过设置event 10231或者dbms_repair来跳过坏块,抢救其他数据;但是在部分情况下,我们设置了他们依然不能跳过坏块,数据库依然报ORA-01578,本文测试了table中各种类型的block,证明在哪些blog出现异常之后不能被跳过.
如果是事务数据块出现坏块可以通过dbms_repair.skip_corrupt_blocks来标记坏块(也可以使用event 10231)来实现;对于BITMAP BLOCK如果出现坏块不会对于读取数据无影响(至于其他操作,请见后续blog);SEGMENT HEADER如果出现坏块,无法通过跳过坏块来实现获取其他数据(正常block)
创建测试表

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
CORE    11.2.0.3.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production

SQL> create table t_xifenfei 
  2  tablespace users 
  3  as
  4  select * from dba_objects;

Table created.

SQL>  select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     74663

查询相关block信息

SQL> select SEGMENT_NAME,HEADER_FILE,HEADER_BLOCK,blocks,extents from DBA_SEGMENTS 
  2  WHERE OWNER='CHF' AND SEGMENT_NAME='T_XIFENFEI';

SEGMENT_NAME    HEADER_FILE HEADER_BLOCK     BLOCKS    EXTENTS
--------------- ----------- ------------ ---------- ----------
T_XIFENFEI                4          378       1152         24

SQL>   select   
  2    dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid)rel_fno,
  3    max(dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)) max_block,
  4    min(dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)) min_block
  5    from chf.t_xifenfei 
  6    group by dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid);

   REL_FNO  MAX_BLOCK  MIN_BLOCK
---------- ---------- ----------
         4       1728        379

SQL> select EXTENT_ID,FILE_ID,BLOCK_ID,blocks from dba_extents where owner='CHF'
   2  AND SEGMENT_NAME='T_XIFENFEI';

 EXTENT_ID    FILE_ID   BLOCK_ID     BLOCKS
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
         0          4        376          8
         1          4        640          8
         2          4        648          8
         3          4        656          8
         4          4        664          8
         5          4        672          8
         6          4        680          8
         7          4        688          8
         8          4        696          8
         9          4        704          8
        10          4        712          8
        11          4        720          8
        12          4        728          8
        13          4        736          8
        14          4        744          8
        15          4        752          8
        16          4        768        128
        17          4        896        128
        18          4       1024        128
        19          4       1152        128
        20          4       1280        128
        21          4       1408        128
        22          4       1536        128
        23          4       1664        128

通过这里可以知道:真正的存储数据是从block 379开始,至于block 376、377、378是什么,使用dump block分析

验证block类型

SQL> alter system dump datafile 4 block 376;

System altered.

SQL> alter system dump datafile 4 block 377;

System altered.

SQL> alter system dump datafile 4 block 378;

System altered.

SQL> alter system dump datafile 4 block 379;

System altered.

--该block是另外extent的开始,所以也尝试分析是否有特殊之处
SQL> alter system dump datafile 4 block 640;

System altered.

--dump 文件header信息
Start dump data blocks tsn: 4 file#:4 minblk 376 maxblk 376
Block dump from cache:
Dump of buffer cache at level 4 for tsn=4 rdba=16777592
Block dump from disk:
buffer tsn: 4 rdba: 0x01000178 (4/376)
scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc6517 seq: 0x04 flg: 0x04 tail: 0x65172004
frmt: 0x02 chkval: 0xc8b3 type: 0x20=FIRST LEVEL BITMAP BLOCK


Start dump data blocks tsn: 4 file#:4 minblk 377 maxblk 377
Block dump from cache:
Dump of buffer cache at level 4 for tsn=4 rdba=16777593
Block dump from disk:
buffer tsn: 4 rdba: 0x01000179 (4/377)
scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc6517 seq: 0x18 flg: 0x04 tail: 0x65172118
frmt: 0x02 chkval: 0x9e8c type: 0x21=SECOND LEVEL BITMAP BLOCK


Start dump data blocks tsn: 4 file#:4 minblk 378 maxblk 378
Block dump from cache:
Dump of buffer cache at level 4 for tsn=4 rdba=16777594
BH (0x2a7f7f0c) file#: 4 rdba: 0x0100017a (4/378) class: 4 ba: 0x2a742000
  set: 5 pool: 3 bsz: 8192 bsi: 0 sflg: 1 pwc: 0,0
  dbwrid: 0 obj: 76372 objn: 76372 tsn: 4 afn: 4 hint: f
  hash: [0x3150a748,0x3150a748] lru: [0x2a7f8094,0x2a7f7ee4]
  lru-flags: hot_buffer
  ckptq: [NULL] fileq: [NULL] objq: [0x2f72dc34,0x2f72dc34] objaq: [0x2f72dc2c,0x2f72dc2c]
  st: XCURRENT md: NULL fpin: 'ktewh25: kteinicnt' tch: 1
  flags:
  LRBA: [0x0.0.0] LSCN: [0x0.0] HSCN: [0xffff.ffffffff] HSUB: [65535]
Block dump from disk:
buffer tsn: 4 rdba: 0x0100017a (4/378)
scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc651b seq: 0x01 flg: 0x04 tail: 0x651b2301
frmt: 0x02 chkval: 0xb2ae type: 0x23=PAGETABLE SEGMENT HEADER

Start dump data blocks tsn: 4 file#:4 minblk 379 maxblk 379
Block dump from cache:
Dump of buffer cache at level 4 for tsn=4 rdba=16777595
Block dump from disk:
buffer tsn: 4 rdba: 0x0100017b (4/379)
scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc6494 seq: 0x01 flg: 0x04 tail: 0x64940601
frmt: 0x02 chkval: 0x0567 type: 0x06=trans data

Start dump data blocks tsn: 4 file#:4 minblk 640 maxblk 640
Block dump from cache:
Dump of buffer cache at level 4 for tsn=4 rdba=16777856
Block dump from disk:
buffer tsn: 4 rdba: 0x01000280 (4/640)
scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc6496 seq: 0x01 flg: 0x04 tail: 0x64960601
frmt: 0x02 chkval: 0x0efe type: 0x06=trans data

这里可以知道:
1.block 376、377为BITMAP BLOCK
2.block 378为SEGMENT HEADER(和dba_segments视图中一致)
3.除extent 0中有特殊(含BITMAP BLOCK和SEGMENT HEADER)block,其他extent只包含事务数据

测试block 640

--block 640包含条数
SQL> select   count(rowid)
  2    from chf.t_xifenfei 
  3     where dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)=640
  4  and dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid)=4;

COUNT(ROWID)
------------
          79

--bbed修改tailchk
BBED> set filename '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf'
        FILENAME        /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf

BBED> set block 640
        BLOCK#          640

BBED> set mode edit
        MODE            Edit

BBED> p tailchk
ub4 tailchk                                 @8188     0x64960601

BBED> m /x 64960602
Warning: contents of previous BIFILE will be lost. Proceed? (Y/N) y
 File: /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf (0)
 Block: 640              Offsets: 8188 to 8191           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 64960602 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> sum apply
Check value for File 0, Block 640:
current = 0xf80b, required = 0xf80b

BBED> verify
DBVERIFY - Verification starting
FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf
BLOCK = 640

Block 640 is corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x01000280 (file 0, block 640)
Fractured block found during verification
Data in bad block:
 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x01000280
 last change scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc6496 seq: 0x1 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x02069664
 check value in block header: 0xf80b
 computed block checksum: 0x0


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Blocks Examined         : 1
Total Blocks Processed (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Processed (Index): 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Index): 0
Total Blocks Empty            : 0
Total Blocks Marked Corrupt   : 1
Total Blocks Influx           : 2
Message 531 not found;  product=RDBMS; facility=BBED

--查询坏块
SQL> select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;
select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei
                         *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 4, block # 640)
ORA-01110: data file 4: '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf'

--跳过坏块
SQL> exec dbms_repair.skip_corrupt_blocks('CHF','T_XIFENFEI');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL>  select skip_corrupt from dba_tables where table_name='T_XIFENFEI' AND OWNER='CHF';

SKIP_COR
--------
ENABLED

SQL>  select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     74584

--修复坏块
BBED> m /x 01069664
Warning: contents of previous BIFILE will be lost. Proceed? (Y/N) y
 File: /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf (0)
 Block: 640              Offsets: 8188 to 8191           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 01069664 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> p tailchk
ub4 tailchk                                 @8188     0x64960601

BBED> sum apply
Check value for File 0, Block 640:
current = 0x0efe, required = 0x0efe

BBED> verify
DBVERIFY - Verification starting
FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf
BLOCK = 640


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Blocks Examined         : 1
Total Blocks Processed (Data) : 1
Total Blocks Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Processed (Index): 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Index): 0
Total Blocks Empty            : 0
Total Blocks Marked Corrupt   : 0
Total Blocks Influx           : 0
Message 531 not found;  product=RDBMS; facility=BBED

--除掉标记表坏块
SQL> BEGIN
  2  DBMS_REPAIR.SKIP_CORRUPT_BLOCKS (
  3  SCHEMA_NAME => 'CHF',
  4  OBJECT_NAME => 'T_XIFENFEI',
  5  OBJECT_TYPE => dbms_repair.table_object,
  6  FLAGS => dbms_repair.NOSKIP_FLAG);
  7  END;
  8  /

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select skip_corrupt from dba_tables where table_name='T_XIFENFEI' AND OWNER='CHF';

SKIP_COR
--------
DISABLED

--查询表记录正常
SQL>  select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     74663

在后续的操作中,也是按照类似步骤操作,考虑到篇幅有限,部分过程不再贴出来

测试block 379

SQL>  select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;
 select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei
                          *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 4, block # 379)
ORA-01110: data file 4: '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf'


SQL> exec dbms_repair.skip_corrupt_blocks('CHF','T_XIFENFEI');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     74575

测试block 378

BBED> set block 378
        BLOCK#          378

--segment header 不支持bbed查看结构
BBED> p tailchk
BBED-00400: invalid blocktype (35)

BBED> map
 File: /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf (0)
 Block: 378                                   Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------
BBED-00400: invalid blocktype (35)


BBED> set offset 8188
        OFFSET          8188

BBED> d
 File: /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf (0)
 Block: 378              Offsets: 8188 to 8191           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 01231b65 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> m /x 651b2302
Warning: contents of previous BIFILE will be lost. Proceed? (Y/N) y
 File: /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf (0)
 Block: 378              Offsets: 8188 to 8191           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 651b2302 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> sum apply
Check value for File 0, Block 378:
current = 0xedf2, required = 0xedf2

--验证坏块
BBED> verify
DBVERIFY - Verification starting
FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf
BLOCK = 378

Block 378 is corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x0100017a (file 0, block 378)
Fractured block found during verification
Data in bad block:
 type: 35 format: 2 rdba: 0x0100017a
 last change scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc651b seq: 0x1 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x02231b65
 check value in block header: 0xedf2
 computed block checksum: 0x0


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Blocks Examined         : 1
Total Blocks Processed (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Processed (Index): 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Index): 0
Total Blocks Empty            : 0
Total Blocks Marked Corrupt   : 1
Total Blocks Influx           : 2
Message 531 not found;  product=RDBMS; facility=BBED


SQL>  select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;
 select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei
                          *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 4, block # 378)
ORA-01110: data file 4: '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf'

--标记跳过坏块
SQL> exec dbms_repair.skip_corrupt_blocks('CHF','T_XIFENFEI');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

--查询依然失败
SQL> select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;
select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei
                         *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 4, block # 378)
ORA-01110: data file 4: '/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf'

测试block 377

BBED> m /x 18211766
Warning: contents of previous BIFILE will be lost. Proceed? (Y/N) y
 File: /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf (0)
 Block: 377              Offsets: 8188 to 8191           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 18211766 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> sum apply
Check value for File 0, Block 377:
current = 0x9d8c, required = 0x9d8c

--bbed验证为坏块
BBED> verify
DBVERIFY - Verification starting
FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf
BLOCK = 377

Block 377 is corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x01000179 (file 0, block 377)
Fractured block found during verification
Data in bad block:
 type: 33 format: 2 rdba: 0x01000179
 last change scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc6517 seq: 0x18 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x66172118
 check value in block header: 0x9d8c
 computed block checksum: 0x0


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Blocks Examined         : 1
Total Blocks Processed (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Processed (Index): 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Index): 0
Total Blocks Empty            : 0
Total Blocks Marked Corrupt   : 1
Total Blocks Influx           : 2
Message 531 not found;  product=RDBMS; facility=BBED

--dbv验证为坏块
[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ dbv file=/u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf

DBVERIFY: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Fri Jan 18 03:32:18 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf
Page 377 is influx - most likely media corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x01000179 (file 4, block 377)
Fractured block found during dbv: 
Data in bad block:
 type: 33 format: 2 rdba: 0x01000179
 last change scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc6517 seq: 0x18 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x66172118
 check value in block header: 0x9d8c
 computed block checksum: 0x0



DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 2560
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 1434
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 10
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 213
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 902
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 1
Total Pages Influx           : 1
Total Pages Encrypted        : 0
Highest block SCN            : 1006486374 (2956.1006486374)

--查询表记录
SQL> select skip_corrupt from dba_tables where table_name='T_XIFENFEI' AND OWNER='CHF';

SKIP_COR
--------
DISABLED

SQL> select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     74663

测试block 376

BBED> m /x 04201766
 File: /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf (0)
 Block: 376              Offsets: 8188 to 8191           Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 04201766 

 <32 bytes per line>

BBED> sum apply
Check value for File 0, Block 376:
current = 0xcbb3, required = 0xcbb3

BBED> verify
DBVERIFY - Verification starting
FILE = /u01/oracle/oradata/ora11g/users01.dbf
BLOCK = 376

Block 376 is corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x01000178 (file 0, block 376)
Fractured block found during verification
Data in bad block:
 type: 32 format: 2 rdba: 0x01000178
 last change scn: 0x0b8c.3bfc6517 seq: 0x4 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0x66172004
 check value in block header: 0xcbb3
 computed block checksum: 0x0


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Blocks Examined         : 1
Total Blocks Processed (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Blocks Processed (Index): 0
Total Blocks Failing   (Index): 0
Total Blocks Empty            : 0
Total Blocks Marked Corrupt   : 1
Total Blocks Influx           : 2
Message 531 not found;  product=RDBMS; facility=BBED

SQL>  select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     74663

通过测试证明,如果是事务数据块出现坏块可以通过dbms_repair.skip_corrupt_blocks来标记坏块(也可以使用event 10231)来实现;对于BITMAP BLOCK如果出现坏块不会对于读取数据无影响(至于其他操作,请见table中各种坏块对select/dml操作影响);SEGMENT HEADER如果出现坏块,无法通过跳过坏块来实现获取其他数据(正常block)